Former Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O’Connor has announced she is withdrawing from public life after being diagnosed with dementia.
In a letter released on Tuesday, the 88-year-old said doctors had diagnosed her with early stage dementia and “probably Alzheimer’s disease”.
Justice O’Connor was the first woman to be appointed to the US top court, and a key swing vote. She retired in 2006.
She served as a visiting judge and civics educator after retiring.
In a public letter, addressed to “friends and fellow Americans”, Justice O’Connor said doctors first diagnosed her “some time ago”.
“As this condition has progressed, I am no longer able to participate in public life,” she wrote.
“Since many people have asked about my current status and activities, I want to be open about these changes, and while I am still able, share some personal thoughts.”
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The former justice went on to detail her passion for civic engagement, which led her to create her iCivics education programme eight years ago to help teach young students about their government.
“As my three sons are tired of hearing my say, ‘It’s not enough to understand, you’ve got to do something.’ There is no more important work than deepening young people’s engagement in our nation,” she said.
She said her current physical condition means she can no longer help lead this cause.
Chief Justice John Roberts said in a statement on Tuesday that he was “saddened” to learn that his fellow justice “faces the challenge of dementia”.
He called her a “towering figure in the history of the United States”, breaking down barriers for women.
“No illness can take away the inspiration she provides for those who will follow the many paths she has blazed,” he said.
Born in El Paso, Texas, in 1930, Justice O’Connor took the Supreme Court bench in 1981, nominated by Republican President Ronald Reagan.
At age 16 she was admitted to Stanford University, where she graduated in 1950 with a degree in economics.
In 1952, Justice O’Connor graduated from Stanford Law School, third in her class and two places behind bench-mate Judge William Rehnquist.
She was known for promoting women’s interests in several cases, including as the swing vote that reaffirmed the landmark abortion ruling Roe v Wade in a second case that sought to overturn it.
In a commencement speech at her alma mater, she said: “Ronald Reagan knew that his decision wasn’t about Sandra Day O’Connor; it was about women everywhere,” according to the Sandra Day O’Connor Institute.
“It was about a nation that was on its way to bridging a chasm between genders that had divided us for too long.”
When she retired from the bench in 2006, it was in part to help care for her husband who had been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s.